The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs  and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.
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Michael Dougan , Professor of European law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.
In particular, eight out of 10 respondents felt that leaving the EU would have a negative impact on trusts' ability to recruit health and social care staff. Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have kept them silent on the EU poll. In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.
Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs IEA announced in July a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a "real possibility" after the general election.
A Blueprint for Britain: Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes. The number of jobs lost or gained by a withdrawal was a dominant issue; the BBC's outline of issues warned that a precise figure was difficult to find.
The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries. Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost.
The EU's importance as a trading partner and the outcome of its trade status if it left was a disputed issue. Whilst those wanting to stay cited that most of the UK's trade was made with the EU, those arguing to leave say that its trade was not as important as it used to be. Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative. The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received. Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.
After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.
The possibility that the UK's smaller constituent countries could vote to remain within the EU but find themselves withdrawn from the EU led to discussion about the risk to the unity of the United Kingdom. The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay". The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners.
The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts. In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.
In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count. Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.
Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count. The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , one pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall, West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.
On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated. Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers. On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station. After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed.
The final result was announced on Friday 24 June at The decision by the electorate was to "Leave the European Union" which won by a majority of 1,, votes 3. Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggested that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower education and higher age. EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey.
The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote. Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens. Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote. Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.
The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly. More than a hundred racist abuse and hate crimes were reported in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.
No more Polish vermin". The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August  was widely speculated to be linked to the Leave result. The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.
Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". On 27 June , David Cameron's spokesperson stated that holding another vote on Britain's membership to the European Union was "not remotely on the cards. There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU". On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.
The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October.
The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning. This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election  but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party UK leadership election, was triggered.
Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in On 4 July Nigel Farage stood down as the leader of UKIP, stating that his "political ambition has been achieved" following the result of the referendum. Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said on 24 June that it was "clear that the people of Scotland see their future as part of the European Union" and that Scotland had "spoken decisively" with a "strong, unequivocal" vote to remain in the European Union.
In reaction to the lack of a unified pro-EU voice following the referendum, the Liberal Democrats and others discussed the launch of a new centre-left political movement. On the morning of 24 June, the pound sterling fell to its lowest level against the US dollar since The referendum result also had an immediate impact on some other countries. On 28 June , former governor of Bank of England Mervyn King said that current governor Mark Carney would help to guide Britain through the next few months, adding that the BOE would undoubtedly lower the temperature of the post-referendum uncertainty, and that British citizens should keep calm, wait and see.
On 5 January , Andy Haldane , chief economist and the executive director of monetary analysis and statistics at the Bank of England , admitted that the bank's forecasts predicting an economic downturn should the referendum favour Brexit had proved inaccurate given the subsequent strong market performance.
In August the Electoral Reform Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run. Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Office of Communications Ofcom to define the role that broadcasters were expected to play.
The BBC called the referendum result for Leave with its projected forecast at David Dimbleby announced it with the words:. The remark about was incorrect: On 9 May , Leave. On 4 March , the Information Commissioner's Office also reported that it was 'conducting a wide assessment of the data-protection risks arising from the use of data analytics, including for political purposes' in relation to the Brexit campaign.
It was specified that among the organisations to be investigated was Cambridge Analytica and its relationship with the Leave. In the run-up to the Brexit referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a "Leave" vote in the referendum.
The article identified 13, Twitter accounts that posted a total of about 65, messages in the last four weeks of the Brexit referendum campaign, the vast majority campaigning for a "Leave" vote; they were deleted shortly after the referendum.
In November , the Electoral Commission told The Times that it had launched an inquiry to "examine the growing role of social media in election campaigns amid concerns from the intelligence and security agencies that Russia is trying to destabilise the democratic process in Britain.
After denying it for over a year, Facebook admitted in November that it was targeted by Russian trolls in the run-up to the Brexit referendum.
EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines".
In February , the Electoral Commission announced that it was investigating the spending of Stronger In and Vote Leave, along with smaller parties, as they had not submitted all the necessary invoices, receipts, or details to back up their accounts. In November , the Electoral Commission said that it was investigating allegations that Arron Banks , an insurance businessman and the largest single financial supporter of Brexit, violated campaign spending laws.
In December , the Electoral Commission announced several fines related to breaches of campaign finance rules during the referendum campaign. In May , the Electoral Commission reported that Leave. EU inaccurately reported three loans it had received, including "a lack of transparency and incorrect reporting around who provided the loans, the dates the loans were entered into, the repayment date and the interest rate.
However, following a High Court case the commissions findings against Vote Leave were ruled both illegal and incorrect. In the same month, the Electoral Commission issued fines to one pro-EU referendum permitted participant and pro-EU two unions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum.
People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum. Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out. Calls for second vote.
Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote. Other organisations campaigning for a second vote. Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. European Union Referendum Act Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, For the positions of backbench MPs and other politicians, see Endorsements in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
Issues in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Conservative Party UK leadership election, Labour Party UK leadership election, Proposed second Scottish independence referendum.
Economic effects of Brexit. Retrieved 1 October A long and rocky relationship". Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 19 February EU referendum bill shows only Tories listen". Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 3 January Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Retrieved 8 August Tory MP will take forward bill". Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 17 May Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 June EU poll is 'clear and present danger' to jobs".
Retrieved 28 May Green Party of England and Wales. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 29 June EU referendum, tax freeze and right-to-buy". Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 31 May Retrieved 24 September MPs support plan for say on Europe". Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 2 February This content is released under the Open Parliament Licence v3.
Cameron sets June date for UK vote". Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 21 June UK goes to the polls". Retrieved 23 June Thousands wrongly sent polling cards". Retrieved 15 February United Kingdom Electoral Commission. Retrieved 5 September Cameron accepts advice to change wording of question". Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 13 April The EU also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition.
Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership. The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [x] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions. The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states.
Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation. They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law , or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions.
Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy. Since the creation of the EU in , it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism.
Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition ,  family law,  asylum law,  and criminal justice. The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls accross the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces,  Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors,  and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities. This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime.
Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in , when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the EU's common commercial policy. It was not, however, until when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.
The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq. The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment.
The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service EEAS , a unique EU department  that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. President Donald Trump , The EU participates in all G8 and G20 summits. G20 summit in Hangzhou, Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement.
The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries. The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs  and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.
The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes. Following the Kosovo War in , the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".
To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process.
EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia. It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management.
In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states. If considered collectively, EU member states are the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world. In , the average among EU countries was 0. Because of its ability to shape rules and norms on a global level as well as its attempts to influence neighbouring countries, the EU has been called an emerging or potential superpower by scholars and academics like T.
The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union , or more closely integrated with the European Union. The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation.
This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. Critics of the concept of the EU as an emerging superpower point to the lack of either a strong European military or of unified EU foreign policy. The European Union has established a single market across the territory of all its members representing million citizens.
The currency union represents million EU citizens. Of the top largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in , have their headquarters in the EU. Airbus is one of the world's leading aircraft manufacturers. Automotive manufacturing is one of most enduring industrial activities in the EU, and it accounts for millions of jobs, billions of euros in investment, and represents a large portion of the continent's exports.
Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union with wide-ranging impact on economic growth and employment. Port of Antwerp container terminal, second-largest seaport in the European Union.
Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe. EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area. Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market , and a customs union between its member states.
The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU ,  and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas , as they travel internally.
The non-EU member states of Iceland , Norway , Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union. Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries. Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states.
The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states. The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis.
This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.
The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in In , having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union. The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism.
In the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining. In , the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states.
The eurozone constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro has since grown to 19 countries. The European System of Financial Supervision is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision composed by three authorities: The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.
To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level. The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community.
The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October , and the first draft policy was published in January The EU has five key points in its energy policy: There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce.
In the estimated network covers: Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS , an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems. The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network.
In the pre EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda. The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System , but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.
The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in , connecting Helsinki in 2h. Spain places second in High-speed rail constructed km in the world after China.
The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices to export their products outside the Community.
This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world. Since the beginning of the s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms.
Initially, these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in , where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' or disassociation of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce by the Fischler reforms in Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size.
This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market. The Competition Commissioner , currently Margrethe Vestager , is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations.
The EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping. To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimun employment and environmental standards.
The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states.
In , when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. European policy-makers originally increased the EU's capacity to act on environmental issues by defining it as a trade problem. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe.
More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme,  which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide.
The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. Basic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In higher education, the policy was developed in the s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme , a university exchange programme which began in There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training , and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme — These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.
Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes , the first of which started in The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. Although the EU has no major competences in the field of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities".
The European Commission 's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products.
All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries. Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.
Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing. Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU. However, there are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.
The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity. The flag used is the Flag of Europe , which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. The blue represents the West, while the number and position of the stars represent completeness and unity, respectively. United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year , having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils.
The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy , the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven 's ninth symphony.
The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in and has since been played on official occasions. Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe. Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union.
Statues of Europa and the bull decorate several of the Union's institutions and a portrait of her is seen on the series of Euro banknotes. The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. Charles the Great , also known as Charlemagne Latin: Carolus Magnus and later recognised as Pater Europae "Father of Europe" ,    has a symbolic relevance to Europe. The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification.
Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens , as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights. The vast majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see EU disambiguation. Location of the European Union, its outermost regions , and the overseas countries and territories. Council of the EU European Parliament.
History of the European Union and History of Europe. Ideas of European unity before Area possibly settled up to c. Area settled up to BCE. Treaties of the European Union. Demographics of the European Union. List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits. Languages of the European Union. Religion in the European Union. Member state of the European Union. Geography of the European Union.
Budget of the European Union. Area of freedom, security and justice. Common Security and Defence Policy. Energy policy of the European Union. European Union competition law and European Commissioner for Competition. Sport policies of the European Union.
Media freedom in the European Union. However, only three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions. Basque is not an official language of the European Union but has a semi-official status. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union.
Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Archived 26 June at the Wayback Machine. Amministrazione delle Finanze  ECR Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture. Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 3 August Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value.
The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community ". Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 19 March Fewer barriers, more opportunities". Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 6 September The Council of the European Union.
Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 8 September Vienna Institute of Demography. A size 41 shoe in Thailand is the equivalent of a male size 8 inthe UK. What is shoe size 8 in UK equal to in US shoe size? What is shoe size 46 equal to in UK? Where can I find shoes in size I'm sure you can order a pair on the internet. What is the UK shoe size of US shoe size 10? What is shoe size 5 in UK equal to in us shoe size? What is UK shoes size 5 in us shoes sizes?
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Shoe Size Conversion Charts If you are purchasing your shoes from outside the UK then please note that all shoe sizes on this site are displayed in the UK format. Also . Men's shoe size conversion table between US, European, UK, Australian & Chinese shoe sizes and the equivalent of each shoe size in inches and centimeters. The information in the table below provides a method of converting shoe sizes between the U.S. sizes, European sizes and the U.K. ie. a size 11 in the U.S. would .